Tomato production in this country accounts to 38 percent of all vegetable production in turkey and has about 25,000 acres in greenhouses.70% of turkey tomatoes are consumed locally while 30% is processed. KY471130) diverged from the South Korean Isolate JJ (which grouped with Spanish isolates) but did not group with these isolates (Fig 6). Although altitude did not significantly impact the prevalence of ToCV in South Africa, the warmer, drier conditions in the north seemed to favor the population dynamics of the whiteflies and the virulence of ToCV (Fig 1 and Table 3). The relationship between Spanish isolates and the Korean isolate JJ is supported by strong bootstrap values, however, their relationship with ToCR2-186 is not supported by a significant bootstrap value. Frost areas: sow under cover 6 weeks before last spring frost. Writing – review & editing, Roles Supervision, Conditions for PCR were 95°C for 2 min followed by 35 cycles of 95°C for 25 s; 52°C for 30 s and 72°C for 25 s following a final elongation of 72°C for 10 min. A: Interveinal leaf chlorosis, chlorotic flecking, and leaf bronzing symptoms on the lower mature leaves of tomato crops. A small percentage of South African tomatoes is bought by cross-border traders who sell produce in Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana and Namibia. 0000002198 00000 n were primarily identified from basic phenotypic screening [9], however, further molecular assays are required to elucidate the species. The phylogram was constructed using the Maximum likelihood method based on the Tamura-Nei model and a bootstrap value of 1000 replicates in MEGA 6. Explore detailed information about the global Tomato markets. The functional role of this protein is presently not known. 0000004896 00000 n Data curation, Their robust nature and adaptive capacity to survive and reproduce in adverse conditions is an evolutionary trend that indirectly contributes to the epidemiology of vectors such as whiteflies and viruses such as ToCV throughout the world. were observed in most greenhouses and sampling sites located in the North-West province. A paired-end library was generated using the platforms’ sequencing by synthesis technology (SBS). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220298.g004, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220298.t004. ToCV was not identified from any of the asymptomatic weed samples that were infested with whiteflies. Impact of climate variability on tomato production in Limpopo Province, South Africa M. F. Tshiala* and J. M. Olwoch Centre for Environmental Studies and Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. In South West Nigeria, tomatoes are usually expensive during the rainy season. The removal of alternative sources of inoculum such as weeds, crop residues, and volunteer plants prior to planting is also recommended to reduce primary spread of ToCV. Wholesale Price Change. 0000002096 00000 n As surveyed by the Hortgro Tree Census, the Klein Karoo accounted for more than 75% of the area under production in 2018. 57 0 obj <>stream Department of Rural Agronomy and Development, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. For example, tomatoes infected with TICV or ToCV are indistinguishable based on visual inspection. Although all values among all isolates were greater than 90% much of the individual ORFs and UTRs of ToCR1-186 shared the highest similarity to the Spanish isolates mentioned above. Only 2,101 contigs were not aligned to the Solanum genomes. Smallholder and rural farmers generally lacked resources and knowledge of disease management. �Y�0��*-�VA�� Therefore, it is important to use molecular methods to validate symptoms in the field. 0000007304 00000 n https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220298.t002. Blast analysis of the RNA-1 sequence ToCR1-186 (GenBank accession no. 0000001310 00000 n Apricots do well in temperate zones but thrive in areas with cold, dry winters and dry, hot summers. A site map (Fig 1) of the survey was generated using ArcGIS v9.3 mapping software from the respective GPS coordinates listed in Table 1. To a lesser extent, S. nigrum, growing among tomato crops in the north-eastern parts of the Mpumalanga province tested positive for ToCV infection. The 59 kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) encoded by ORF-1b (nucleotides 6212–7657) is likely expressed as a result of a +1 ribosomal frameshift at the end of ORF-1a; a common strategy among members of the Closteroviridae family [23]. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis of the ToCV genome is described. South Africa The season has ended in the summer region and the total tonnage is estimated at 40,000 tonnes, as previously. 0000002466 00000 n Contributed equally to this work with: These viruses were serendipitously identified using next-generation sequence analysis. These symptoms may also be mistaken for physiological disorders and pesticide toxicity. History Of Tomato Cultivation. Members of the genus Crinivirus belong to the family Closteroviridae and typically comprise a single-stranded bi-partite/tri-partite positive-sense RNA genome, approximately 15.6–17.9 kb in size [1]. Consequently, alternative hosts such as weeds cannot be overlooked as potential sources of virus inoculum. Although tomato cultivation is concentrated in the Limpopo, Mpumalanga (Lowveld and Highveld), Northern KwaZulu Natal, Eastern Cape, and Western Cape provinces, all nine provinces were surveyed which included commercial, smallholder, and subsistence farms (Fig 1 and Table 1). �$�X���C���PM�h^��,ꠐz疍��2�|�3�#B�r�6:AC�$YQN`�Hsli(�*�Va֍Qn�#K��YR�*�St�. PLoS ONE 14(7): ORF-2 (7664–8245) encodes a 22 kDa protein (P22) which is a suppressor of gene silencing [25], and ORF-3 (8265–8420) encodes a 6 kDa protein (P6) at the 3ʹ terminus of RNA-1, possessing a transmembrane domain similarly recognized in other crinivirus species [23]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220298.g002. 0000001049 00000 n Overview of Global Tomato Market. Product Big type Fresh Tomatos Size 6-8cm packaging carton/plastic basket/ Packaging according to customer requirement Place of origin South Africa Supply capacity 3000tons/month Quality No cracks, no insect bites, mature, modest,sweet and sour taste Supplying period All the year round The province account for more than 50% of the total area planted to tomatoes. Yes Major production areas in South Africa Tomatoes are grown all over the country in summer and in winter in frost-free areas, and their production is concentrated in Limpopo, the Mpumalanga Lowveld and Middleveld, the Pongola area of Kwazulu-Natal, the southern parts … For these reasons, a multiplex RT-PCR approach was used to detect single or mixed infections of crinivirus species that commonly infect solanaceous hosts. 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